Privacy underpins human dignity and other key values such as freedom of association and freedom of speech.
It has become one of the most important human rights issues of the modern age. Privacy is a fundamental human right recognized in the UN Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and in many other international and regional treaties. Nearly every country in the world recognizes a right of privacy explicitly in their Constitution. At a minimum, these provisions include rights of inviolability of the home and secrecy of communications. Most recently-written Constitutions such as South Africa's and Hungary's include specific rights to access and control one's personal information.
In many of the countries where privacy is not explicitly recognized in the Constitution, such as the United States, Ireland and India, the courts have found that right in other provisions. In many countries, international agreements that recognize privacy rights such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights or the European Convention on Human Rights have been adopted into law.
In the early 1970s, countries began adopting broad laws intended to protect individual privacy. Throughout the world, there is a general movement towards the adoption of comprehensive privacy laws that set a framework for protection.
Even with the adoption of legal and other protections, violations of privacy remain a concern. In many countries, laws have not kept up with the technology, leaving significant gaps in protections. In other countries, law enforcement and intelligence agencies have been given significant exemptions. Finally, in the absence of adequate oversight and enforcement, the mere presence of a law may not provide adequate protection.
Police services, even in countries with strong privacy laws, still maintain extensive files on citizens not accused or even suspected of any crime. Companies regularly flaunt the laws, collecting and disseminating personal information. In the United States, even with the long-standing existence of a law on consumer credit information, companies still make extensive use of such information for marketing purposes.
The increasing sophistication of information technology with its capacity to collect, analyze and disseminate information on individuals has introduced a sense of urgency to the demand for legislation. Furthermore, new developments in medical research and care, telecommunications, advanced transportation systems and financial transfers have dramatically increased the level of information generated by each individual. Computers linked together by high speed networks with advanced processing systems can create comprehensive dossiers on any person without the need for a single central computer system. New technologies developed by the defense industry are spreading into law enforcement, civilian agencies, and private companies.
Privacy protection is frequently seen as a way of drawing the line at how far society can intrude into a person's affairs. It can be divided into the following facets:
Information Privacy, which involves the establishment of rules governing the collection and handling of personal data such as credit information and medical records;
Bodily privacy, which concerns the protection of people's physical selves against invasive procedures such as drug testing and cavity searches;
Privacy of communications, which covers the security and privacy of mail, telephones, email and other forms of communication; and
Territorial privacy, which concerns the setting of limits on intrusion into the domestic and other environments such as the workplace or public space.
The expression of data protection in various declarations and laws varies only by degrees. All require that personal information must be:
- obtained fairly and lawfully;
- used only for the original specified purpose;
- adequate, relevant and not excessive to purpose;
- accurate and up to date; and
- destroyed after its purpose is completed.
International Human and Private Rights Protection Association (IHPRPA) is an international anti-bullying organization. IHPRPA investigates and deals with all bullying events in any countries' organizations. The investigation report(s) will be distributed and submitted to the authorities in the United Nations and its members. If bullying events, particularly cyberbullying, without proper disposal and improvement in educational institutes (including schools of all levels) have proven to be true, IHPRPA will submit the investigating report(s) to UNESCO directly and circulate the report to international educational institutes and the Ministry of Education in its member list. IHPRPA will request ICHEA to remove the institute(s) from its name list. During the investigation period, the institute(s) under-investigated will be subjected to probation in the priority watch list.
International Human and Privacy Rights Protection Association (IHPRPA) is duly registered with the European Union as NGO. The official EU public ID number in the Transparency Register is:12717801957095